Marketing Research Glossary - G

Gain Score: The difference between before and after experimental results.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR): The measurement of changes in the electric resistance of the human skin associated with various stimuli (pictures, sounds, words, etc.).

Game Theory: Game theory is a mathematical framework for analyzing interactions among decision-makers and the resulting outcomes. Game theory elements are often built into models developed by Decision Analyst.

Garbologists: Researchers who sort through people's garbage to analyze household consumption patterns.

Generalizability: The extent to which inferences can be drawn about the target population based on the results of marketing research.

Generation X: Generation between 1965 and 1976, when birth rates dropped rapidly and remained low. Often called the "Baby Bust."

Geocoded Maps: See GIS Mapping or Thematic Maps.

Geocoding (Or Geographic Encoding): The process of associating geographic areas (state, county, postal route, census tract, etc.) with demographic and psychographic information. Geocoding is widely used to analyze and segment customer databases and to enhance the effectiveness of direct marketing campaigns. Learn More

Geodemographic Segmentation System: A system of classifying consumers into various segments based on the demographic and economic characteristics of the areas in which they live. Learn More

Geographic Centroids: Geographic points marking the approximate centers of populations within the 260,000 block groups and enumeration districts in the U.S.

Geographic Information System (GIS): A software system to record, store, process, and analyze overlays of information linked to geographic areas.

Geographics: The analysis and grouping of people or households based on geographic areas. Learn More

Geometric Analysis: A mathematical discipline at the interface of differential geometry and differential equations. It refers both to the use of geometrical methods in the study of partial differential equations (when it is also known as "geometric PDE") and the application of the theory of partial differential equations to geometry. Learn More

Geometric Study Area: A market defined by a geometric shape (a circle, square, etc.).

GIS: Geographic Information Systems. See GIS Mapping.

GIS Mapping (Geographical Information System Mapping): The analysis and visual display of data via color-coded geographical maps. Learn More

Global Focus Groups: Focus groups conducted in multiple countries. These focus groups can be conducted by several in-person moderators working independently, or these groups can be conducted via Time-Extended™ Online Discussion Forums by Decision Analyst via the Internet in multiple countries simultaneously. Global focus groups can also be conducted through various types of video conferencing technologies.

Goal Orientation: A focus on the accomplishment of corporate goals; a limit set on consumer orientation.

Graphic Rating Scales: Visual scales used to communicate the answer choices and show the spatial relationships among the possible answers to communicate relative importance.

Grid: A term used to describe a sequence of awareness, trial, and usage questions in a telephone questionnaire, in which all of the answers are arrayed in one grid. The term is sometimes used to refer to visual scales for respondents in conceptual mapping and attitudinal scaling exercises.

Grid Test: A means of testing more than one variable at a time.

Gross Income: A household's total income from all sources, before taxes are deducted.

Group Dynamics: The interactions among respondents in a focus group, or in any small group of people.

Group Depth Interviews: See Group Interview.

Group Discussions: See Group Interview.

Group Interview: A qualitative research technique involving a discussion among eight to ten respondents, led by a moderator. Also called Focus Groups, Group Discussions, and Group Depth Interviews.

Group Quarters Population: Residents of military barracks, college dormitories, prisons, long-term-care hospitals, boarding houses, nursing homes, etc.

Growth Rate: The total increase (or decrease) in a variable over a defined period of time, divided by the variable's value in the base time period.